# Proxies and the Reflection API


ECMAScript 5 and ECMAScript 6 were both developed with demystifying JavaScript functionality in mind. For example, JavaScript environments contained nonenumerable and nonwritable object properties before ECMAScript 5, but developers couldn’t define their own nonenumerable or nonwritable properties. ECMAScript 5 included the Object.defineProperty() method to allow developers to do what JavaScript engines could do already.

ECMAScript 6 gives developers further access to JavaScript engine capabilities by adding built-in objects. To allow developers to create built-in objects, the language exposes the inner workings of objects through proxies, which are wrappers that can intercept and alter low-level operations of the JavaScript engine. This chapter starts by describing the problem that proxies are meant to address in detail, and then discusses how you can create and use proxies effectively.




### Summary
* [](#The-Array-Problem)
* [](#What-are-Proxies-and-Reflection)
* [](#Creating-a-Simple-Proxy)
* [](#Validating-Properties-Using-the-set-Trap)
* [](#Object-Shape-Validation-Using-the-get-Trap)
* [](#Hiding-Property-Existence-Using-the-has-Trap)
* [](#Preventing-Property-Deletion-with-the-deleteProperty-Trap)
* [](#Prototype-Proxy-Traps)
* [](#Object-Extensibility-Traps)
* [](#Property-Descriptor-Traps)
* [](#The-ownKeys-Trap)
* [](#Function-Proxies-with-the-apply-and-construct-Traps)
* [](#Revocable-Proxies)
* [](#Solving-the-Array-Problem)
* [](#Using-a-Proxy-as-a-Prototype)
* [](#Summary)




### The Array Problem


The JavaScript array object behaves in ways that developers couldn’t mimic in their own objects before ECMASCript 6. An array’s length property is affected when you assign values to specific array items, and you can modify array items by modifying the length property. For example:

```js
let colors = ["red", "green", "blue"];

console.log(colors.length); // 3

colors[3] = "black";

console.log(colors.length); // 4
console.log(colors[3]); // "black"

colors.length = 2;

console.log(colors.length); // 2
console.log(colors[3]); // undefined
console.log(colors[2]); // undefined
console.log(colors[1]); // "green"
```

The colors array starts with three items. Assigning "black" to colors[3] automatically increments the length property to 4. Setting the length property to 2 removes the last two items in the array, leaving only the first two items. Nothing in ECMAScript 5 allows developers to achieve this behavior, but proxies change that.




> This nonstandard behavior is why arrays are considered exotic objects in ECMAScript 6.




### What are Proxies and Reflection?


You can create a proxy to use in place of another object (called the target) by calling new Proxy(). The proxy virtualizes the target so that the proxy and the target appear to be the same object to functionality using the proxy.

Proxies allow you to intercept low-level object operations on the target that are otherwise internal to the JavaScript engine. These low-level operations are intercepted using a trap, which is a function that responds to a specific operation.

The reflection API, represented by the Reflect object, is a collection of methods that provide the default behavior for the same low-level operations that proxies can override. There is a Reflect method for every proxy trap. Those methods have the same name and are passed the same arguments as their respective proxy traps. Table 11-1 summarizes this behavior.

Table 11-1: Proxy traps in JavaScript

| Proxy Trap | Overrides the Behavior Of | Default Behavior |
| :----------------------: | :-------------------------------: | :--------------------------------: |
| get | Reading a property value | Reflect.get() |
| set | Writing to a property | Reflect.set() |
| has | The in operator | Reflect.has() |
| deleteProperty | The delete operator | Reflect.deleteProperty() |
| getPrototypeOf | Object.getPrototypeOf() | Reflect.getPrototypeOf() |
| setPrototypeOf | Object.setPrototypeOf() | Reflect.setPrototypeOf() |
| isExtensible | Object.isExtensible() | Reflect.isExtensible() |
| preventExtensions | Object.preventExtensions() | Reflect.preventExtensions() |
| getOwnPropertyDescriptor | Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor() | Reflect.getOwnPropertyDescriptor() |
| defineProperty | Object.defineProperty() | Reflect.defineProperty |
| ownKeys | Object.keys, Object.getOwnPropertyNames(), Object.getOwnPropertySymbols() | Reflect.ownKeys() |
| apply | Calling a function | Reflect.apply() |
| construct | Calling a function with new | Reflect.construct() |

Each trap overrides some built-in behavior of JavaScript objects, allowing you to intercept and modify the behavior. If you still need to use the built-in behavior, then you can use the corresponding reflection API method. The relationship between proxies and the reflection API becomes clear when you start creating proxies, so it’s best to dive in and look at some examples.




> The original ECMAScript 6 specification had an additional trap called enumerate that was designed to alter how for-in and Object.keys() enumerated properties on an object. However, the enumerate trap was removed in ECMAScript 7 (also called ECMAScript 2016) as difficulties were discovered during implementation. The enumerate trap no longer exists in any JavaScript environment and is therefore not covered in this chapter.




### Creating a Simple Proxy


When you use the Proxy constructor to make a proxy, you’ll pass it two arguments: the target and a handler. A handler is an object that defines one or more traps. The proxy uses the default behavior for all operations except when traps are defined for that operation. To create a simple forwarding proxy, you can use a handler without any traps:

```js
let target = {};

let proxy = new Proxy(target, {});

proxy.name = "proxy";
console.log(proxy.name); // "proxy"
console.log(target.name); // "proxy"

target.name = "target";
console.log(proxy.name); // "target"
console.log(target.name); // "target"
```

In this example, proxy forwards all operations directly to target. When "proxy" is assigned to the proxy.name property, name is created on target. The proxy itself is not storing this property; it’s simply forwarding the operation to target. Similarly, the values of proxy.name and target.name are the same because they are both references to target.name. That also means setting target.name to a new value causes proxy.name to reflect the same change. Of course, proxies without traps aren’t very interesting, so what happens when you define a trap?




### Validating Properties Using the set Trap


Suppose you want to create an object whose property values must be numbers. That means every new property added to the object must be validated, and an error must be thrown if the value isn’t a number. To accomplish this, you could define a set trap that overrides the default behavior of setting a value. The set trap receives four arguments:

1. trapTarget - the object that will receive the property (the proxy’s target)
2. key - the property key (string or symbol) to write to
3. value - the value being written to the property
4. receiver - the object on which the operation took place (usually the proxy)

Reflect.set() is the set trap’s corresponding reflection method, and it’s the default behavior for this operation. The Reflect.set() method accepts the same four arguments as the set proxy trap, making the method easy to use inside of the trap. The trap should return true if the property was set or false if not. (The Reflect.set() method returns the correct value based on whether the operation succeeded.)

To validate the values of properties, you’d use the set trap and inspect the value that is passed in. Here’s an example:

```js
let target = {
name: "target"
};

let proxy = new Proxy(target, {
set(trapTarget, key, value, receiver) {

// ignore existing properties so as not to affect them
if (!trapTarget.hasOwnProperty(key)) {
if (isNaN(value)) {
throw new TypeError("Property must be a number.");
}
}

// add the property
return Reflect.set(trapTarget, key, value, receiver);
}
});

// adding a new property
proxy.count = 1;
console.log(proxy.count); // 1
console.log(target.count); // 1

// you can assign to name because it exists on target already
proxy.name = "proxy";
console.log(proxy.name); // "proxy"
console.log(target.name); // "proxy"

// throws an error
proxy.anotherName = "proxy";
```

This code defines a proxy trap that validates the value of any new property added to target. When proxy.count = 1 is executed, the set trap is called. The trapTarget value is equal to target, key is "count", value is 1, and receiver (not used in this example) is proxy. There is no existing property named count in target, so the proxy validates value by passing it to isNaN(). If the result is NaN, then the property value is not numeric and an error is thrown. Since this code sets count to 1, the proxy calls Reflect.set() with the same four arguments that were passed to the trap to add the new property.

When proxy.name is assigned a string, the operation completes successfully. Since target already has a name property, that property is omitted from the validation check by calling the trapTarget.hasOwnProperty() method. This ensures that previously-existing non-numeric property values are still supported.

When proxy.anotherName is assigned a string, however, an error is thrown. The anotherName property doesn’t exist on the target, so its value needs to be validated. During validation, the error is thrown because "proxy" isn’t a numeric value.

Where the set proxy trap lets you intercept when properties are being written to, the get proxy trap lets you intercept when properties are being read.




### Object Shape Validation Using the get Trap


One of the interesting, and sometimes confusing, aspects of JavaScript is that reading nonexistent properties doesn’t throw an error. Instead, the value undefined is used for the property value, as in this example:

```js
let target = {};

console.log(target.name); // undefined
```

In most other languages, attempting to read target.name throws an error because the property doesn’t exist. But JavaScript just uses undefined for the value of the target.name property. If you’ve ever worked on a large code base, you’ve probably seen how this behavior can cause significant problems, especially when there’s a typo in the property name. Proxies can help you save yourself from this problem by having object shape validation.

An object shape is the collection of properties and methods available on the object. JavaScript engines use object shapes to optimize code, often creating classes to represent the objects. If you can safely assume an object will always have the same properties and methods it began with (a behavior you can enforce with the Object.preventExtensions() method, the Object.seal() method, or the Object.freeze() method), then throwing an error on attempts to access nonexistent properties can be helpful. Proxies make object shape validation easy.

Since property validation only has to happen when a property is read, you’d use the get trap. The get trap is called when a property is read, even if that property doesn’t exist on the object, and it takes three arguments:

1. trapTarget - the object from which the property is read (the proxy’s target)
2. key - the property key (a string or symbol) to read
3. receiver - the object on which the operation took place (usually the proxy)

These arguments mirror the set trap’s arguments, with one noticeable difference. There’s no value argument here because get traps don’t write values. The Reflect.get() method accepts the same three arguments as the get trap and returns the property’s default value.

You can use the get trap and Reflect.get() to throw an error when a property doesn’t exist on the target, as follows:

```js
let proxy = new Proxy({}, {
get(trapTarget, key, receiver) {
if (!(key in receiver)) {
throw new TypeError("Property " + key + " doesn't exist.");
}

return Reflect.get(trapTarget, key, receiver);
}
});

// adding a property still works
proxy.name = "proxy";
console.log(proxy.name); // "proxy"

// nonexistent properties throw an error
console.log(proxy.nme); // throws error
```

In this example, the get trap intercepts property read operations. The in operator is used to determine if the property already exists on the receiver. The receiver is used with in instead of trapTarget in case receiver is a proxy with a has trap, a type I’ll cover in the next section. Using trapTarget in this case would sidestep the has trap and potentially give you the wrong result. An error is thrown if the property doesn’t exist, and otherwise, the default behavior is used.

This code allows new properties like proxy.name to be added, written to, and read from with no problems. The last line contains a typo: proxy.nme should probably be proxy.name instead. This throws an error because nme doesn’t exist as a property.




### Hiding Property Existence Using the has Trap


The in operator determines whether a property exists on a given object and returns true if there is either an own property or a prototype property matching the name or symbol. For example:

```js
let target = {
value: 42;
}

console.log("value" in target); // true
console.log("toString" in target); // true
```

Both value and toString exist on object, so in both cases the in operator returns true. The value property is an own property while toString is a prototype property (inherited from Object). Proxies allow you to intercept this operation and return a different value for in with the has trap.

The has trap is called whenever the in operator is used. When called, two arguments are passed to the has trap:

1. trapTarget - the object the property is read from (the proxy’s target)
2. key - the property key (string or symbol) to check

The Reflect.has() method accepts these same arguments and returns the default response for the in operator. Using the has trap and Reflect.has() allows you to alter the behavior of in for some properties while falling back to default behavior for others. For instance, suppose you just want to hide the value property. You can do so like this:

```js
let target = {
name: "target",
value: 42
};

let proxy = new Proxy(target, {
has(trapTarget, key) {

if (key === "value") {
return false;
} else {
return Reflect.has(trapTarget, key);
}
}
});


console.log("value" in proxy); // false
console.log("name" in proxy); // true
console.log("toString" in proxy); // true
```

The has trap for proxy checks to see if key is "value" returns false if so. Otherwise, the default behavior is used via a call to the Reflect.has() method. As a result, the in operator returns false for the value property even though value actually exists on the target. The other properties, name and toString, correctly return true when used with the in operator.




### Preventing Property Deletion with the deleteProperty Trap


The delete operator removes a property from an object and returns true when successful and false when unsuccessful. In strict mode, delete throws an error when you attempt to delete a nonconfigurable property; in nonstrict mode, delete simply returns false. Here’s an example:

```js
let target = {
name: "target",
value: 42
};

Object.defineProperty(target, "name", { configurable: false });

console.log("value" in target); // true

let result1 = delete target.value;
console.log(result1); // true

console.log("value" in target); // false

// Note: The following line throws an error in strict mode
let result2 = delete target.name;
console.log(result2); // false

console.log("name" in target); // true
```

The value property is deleted using the delete operator and, as a result, the in operator returns false in the third console.log() call. The nonconfigurable name property can’t be deleted so the delete operator simply returns false (if this code is run in strict mode, an error is thrown instead). You can alter this behavior by using the deleteProperty trap in a proxy.

The deleteProperty trap is called whenever the delete operator is used on an object property. The trap is passed two arguments:

1. trapTarget - the object from which the property should be deleted (the proxy’s target)
2. key - the property key (string or symbol) to delete

The Reflect.deleteProperty() method provides the default implementation of the deleteProperty trap and accepts the same two arguments. You can combine Reflect.deleteProperty() and the deleteProperty trap to change how the delete operator behaves. For instance, you could ensure that the value property can’t be deleted:

```js
let target = {
name: "target",
value: 42
};

let proxy = new Proxy(target, {
deleteProperty(trapTarget, key) {

if (key === "value") {
return false;
} else {
return Reflect.deleteProperty(trapTarget, key);
}
}
});

// Attempt to delete proxy.value

console.log("value" in proxy); // true

let result1 = delete proxy.value;
console.log(result1); // false

console.log("value" in proxy); // true

// Attempt to delete proxy.name

console.log("name" in proxy); // true

let result2 = delete proxy.name;
console.log(result2); // true

console.log("name" in proxy); // false
```

This code is very similar to the has trap example in that the deleteProperty trap checks to see if the key is "value" and returns false if so. Otherwise, the default behavior is used by calling the Reflect.deleteProperty() method. The value property can’t be deleted through proxy because the operation is trapped, but the name property is deleted as expected. This approach is especially useful when you want to protect properties from deletion without throwing an error in strict mode.




### Prototype Proxy Traps


Chapter 4 introduced the Object.setPrototypeOf() method that ECMAScript 6 added to complement the ECMAScript 5 Object.getPrototypeOf() method. Proxies allow you to intercept execution of both methods through the setPrototypeOf and getPrototypeOf traps. In both cases, the method on Object calls the trap of the corresponding name on the proxy, allowing you to alter the methods’ behavior.

Since there are two traps associated with prototype proxies, there’s a set of methods associated with each type of trap. The setPrototypeOf trap receives these arguments:

1. trapTarget - the object for which the prototype should be set (the proxy’s target)
2. proto - the object to use for as the prototype

These are the same arguments passed to the Object.setPrototypeOf() and Reflect.setPrototypeOf() methods. The getPrototypeOf trap, on the other hand, only receives the trapTarget argument, which is the argument passed to the Object.getPrototypeOf() and Reflect.getPrototypeOf() methods.




#### How Prototype Proxy Traps Work


There are some restrictions on these traps. First, the getPrototypeOf trap must return an object or null, and any other return value results in a runtime error. The return value check ensures that Object.getPrototypeOf() will always return an expected value. Similarly, the return value of the setPrototypeOf trap must be false if the operation doesn’t succeed. When setPrototypeOf returns false, Object.setPrototypeOf() throws an error. If setPrototypeOf returns any value other than false, then Object.setPrototypeOf() assumes the operation succeeded.

The following example hides the prototype of the proxy by always returning null and also doesn’t allow the prototype to be changed:

```js
let target = {};
let proxy = new Proxy(target, {
getPrototypeOf(trapTarget) {
return null;
},
setPrototypeOf(trapTarget, proto) {
return false;
}
});

let targetProto = Object.getPrototypeOf(target);
let proxyProto = Object.getPrototypeOf(proxy);

console.log(targetProto === Object.prototype); // true
console.log(proxyProto === Object.prototype); // false
console.log(proxyProto); // null

// succeeds
Object.setPrototypeOf(target, {});

// throws error
Object.setPrototypeOf(proxy, {});
```

This code emphasizes the difference between the behavior of target and proxy. While Object.getPrototypeOf() returns a value for target, it returns null for proxy because the getPrototypeOf trap is called. Similarly, Object.setPrototypeOf() succeeds when used on target but throws an error when used on proxy due to the setPrototypeOf trap.

If you want to use the default behavior for these two traps, you can use the corresponding methods on Reflect. For instance, this code implements the default behavior for the getPrototypeOf and setPrototypeOf traps:

```js
let target = {};
let proxy = new Proxy(target, {
getPrototypeOf(trapTarget) {
return Reflect.getPrototypeOf(trapTarget);
},
setPrototypeOf(trapTarget, proto) {
return Reflect.setPrototypeOf(trapTarget, proto);
}
});

let targetProto = Object.getPrototypeOf(target);
let proxyProto = Object.getPrototypeOf(proxy);

console.log(targetProto === Object.prototype); // true
console.log(proxyProto === Object.prototype); // true

// succeeds
Object.setPrototypeOf(target, {});

// also succeeds
Object.setPrototypeOf(proxy, {});
```

In this example, you can use target and proxy interchangeably and get the same results because the getPrototypeOf and setPrototypeOf traps are just passing through to use the default implementation. It’s important that this example use the Reflect.getPrototypeOf() and Reflect.setPrototypeOf() methods rather than the methods of the same name on Object due to some important differences.




#### Why Two Sets of Methods?


The confusing aspect of Reflect.getPrototypeOf() and Reflect.setPrototypeOf() is that they look suspiciously similar to the Object.getPrototypeOf() and Object.setPrototypeOf() methods. While both sets of methods perform similar operations, there are some distinct differences between the two.

To begin, Object.getPrototypeOf() and Object.setPrototypeOf() are higher-level operations that were created for developer use from the start. The Reflect.getPrototypeOf() and Reflect.setPrototypeOf() methods are lower-level operations that give developers access to the previously internal-only [[GetPrototypeOf]] and [[SetPrototypeOf]] operations. The Reflect.getPrototypeOf() method is the wrapper for the internal [[GetPrototypeOf]] operation (with some input validation). The Reflect.setPrototypeOf() method and [[SetPrototypeOf]] have the same relationship. The corresponding methods on Object also call [[GetPrototypeOf]] and [[SetPrototypeOf]] but perform a few steps before the call and inspect the return value to determine how to behave.

The Reflect.getPrototypeOf() method throws an error if its argument is not an object, while Object.getPrototypeOf() first coerces the value into an object before performing the operation. If you were to pass a number into each method, you’d get a different result:

```js
let result1 = Object.getPrototypeOf(1);
console.log(result1 === Number.prototype); // true

// throws an error
Reflect.getPrototypeOf(1);
```

The Object.getPrototypeOf() method allows you retrieve a prototype for the number 1 because it first coerces the value into a Number object and then returns Number.prototype. The Reflect.getPrototypeOf() method doesn’t coerce the value, and since 1 isn’t an object, it throws an error.

The Reflect.setPrototypeOf() method also has a few more differences from the Object.setPrototypeOf() method. First, Reflect.setPrototypeOf() returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation was successful. A true value is returned for success, and false is returned for failure. If Object.setPrototypeOf() fails, it throws an error.

As the first example under “How Prototype Proxy Traps Work” showed, when the setPrototypeOf proxy trap returns false, it causes Object.setPrototypeOf() to throw an error. The Object.setPrototypeOf() method returns the first argument as its value and therefore isn’t suitable for implementing the default behavior of the setPrototypeOf proxy trap. The following code demonstrates these differences:

```js
let target1 = {};
let result1 = Object.setPrototypeOf(target1, {});
console.log(result1 === target1); // true

let target2 = {};
let result2 = Reflect.setPrototypeOf(target2, {});
console.log(result2 === target2); // false
console.log(result2); // true
```

In this example, Object.setPrototypeOf() returns target1 as its value, but Reflect.setPrototypeOf() returns true. This subtle difference is very important. You’ll see more seemingly duplicate methods on Object and Reflect, but always be sure to use the method on Reflect inside any proxy traps.




> Both sets of methods will call the getPrototypeOf and setPrototypeOf proxy traps when used on a proxy.




### Object Extensibility Traps


ECMAScript 5 added object extensibility modification through the Object.preventExtensions() and Object.isExtensible() methods, and ECMAScript 6 allows proxies to intercept those method calls to the underlying objects through the preventExtensions and isExtensible traps. Both traps receive a single argument called trapTarget that is the object on which the method was called. The isExtensible trap must return a boolean value indicating whether the object is extensible while the preventExtensions trap must return a boolean value indicating if the operation succeeded.

There are also Reflect.preventExtensions() and Reflect.isExtensible() methods to implement the default behavior. Both return boolean values, so they can be used directly in their corresponding traps.




#### Two Basic Examples


To see object extensibility traps in action, consider the following code, which implements the default behavior for the isExtensible and preventExtensions traps:

```js
let target = {};
let proxy = new Proxy(target, {
isExtensible(trapTarget) {
return Reflect.isExtensible(trapTarget);
},
preventExtensions(trapTarget) {
return Reflect.preventExtensions(trapTarget);
}
});


console.log(Object.isExtensible(target)); // true
console.log(Object.isExtensible(proxy)); // true

Object.preventExtensions(proxy);

console.log(Object.isExtensible(target)); // false
console.log(Object.isExtensible(proxy)); // false
```

This example shows that both Object.preventExtensions() and Object.isExtensible() correctly pass through from proxy to target. You can, of course, also change the behavior. For example, if you don’t want to allow Object.preventExtensions() to succeed on your proxy, you could return false from the preventExtensions trap:

```js
let target = {};
let proxy = new Proxy(target, {
isExtensible(trapTarget) {
return Reflect.isExtensible(trapTarget);
},
preventExtensions(trapTarget) {
return false
}
});


console.log(Object.isExtensible(target)); // true
console.log(Object.isExtensible(proxy)); // true

Object.preventExtensions(proxy);

console.log(Object.isExtensible(target)); // true
console.log(Object.isExtensible(proxy)); // true
```

Here, the call to Object.preventExtensions(proxy) is effectively ignored because the preventExtensions trap returns false. The operation isn’t forwarded to the underlying target, so Object.isExtensible() returns true.




#### Duplicate Extensibility Methods


You may have noticed that, once again, there are seemingly duplicate methods on Object and Reflect. In this case, they’re more similar than not. The methods Object.isExtensible() and Reflect.isExtensible() are similar except when passed a non-object value. In that case, Object.isExtensible() always returns false while Reflect.isExtensible() throws an error. Here’s an example of that behavior:

```js
let result1 = Object.isExtensible(2);
console.log(result1); // false

// throws error
let result2 = Reflect.isExtensible(2);
```

This restriction is similar to the difference between the Object.getPrototypeOf() and Reflect.getPrototypeOf() methods, as the method with lower-level functionality has stricter error checks than its higher-level counterpart.

The Object.preventExtensions() and Reflect.preventExtensions() methods are also very similar. The Object.preventExtensions() method always returns the value that was passed to it as an argument even if the value isn’t an object. The Reflect.preventExtensions() method, on the other hand, throws an error if the argument isn’t an object; if the argument is an object, then Reflect.preventExtensions() returns true when the operation succeeds or false if not. For example:

```js
let result1 = Object.preventExtensions(2);
console.log(result1); // 2

let target = {};
let result2 = Reflect.preventExtensions(target);
console.log(result2); // true

// throws error
let result3 = Reflect.preventExtensions(2);
```

Here, Object.preventExtensions() passes through the value 2 as its return value even though 2 isn’t an object. The Reflect.preventExtensions() method returns true when an object is passed to it and throws an error when 2 is passed to it.




### Property Descriptor Traps


One of the most important features of ECMAScript 5 was the ability to define property attributes using the Object.defineProperty() method. In previous versions of JavaScript, there was no way to define an accessor property, make a property read-only, or make a property nonenumerable. All of these are possible with the Object.defineProperty() method, and you can retrieve those attributes with the Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor() method.

Proxies let you intercept calls to Object.defineProperty() and Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor() using the defineProperty and getOwnPropertyDescriptor traps, respectively. The defineProperty trap receives the following arguments:

1. trapTarget - the object on which the property should be defined (the proxy’s target)
2. key - the string or symbol for the property
3. descriptor - the descriptor object for the property

The defineProperty trap requires you to return true if the operation is successful and false if not. The getOwnPropertyDescriptor traps receives only trapTarget and key, and you are expected to return the descriptor. The corresponding Reflect.defineProperty() and Reflect.getOwnPropertyDescriptor() methods accept the same arguments as their proxy trap counterparts. Here’s an example that just implements the default behavior for each trap:

```js
let proxy = new Proxy({}, {
defineProperty(trapTarget, key, descriptor) {
return Reflect.defineProperty(trapTarget, key, descriptor);
},
getOwnPropertyDescriptor(trapTarget, key) {
return Reflect.getOwnPropertyDescriptor(trapTarget, key);
}
});


Object.defineProperty(proxy, "name", {
value: "proxy"
});

console.log(proxy.name); // "proxy"

let descriptor = Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor(proxy, "name");

console.log(descriptor.value); // "proxy"
```

This code defines a property called "name" on the proxy with the Object.defineProperty() method. The property descriptor for that property is then retrieved by the Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor() method.




#### Blocking Object.defineProperty()


The defineProperty trap requires you to return a boolean value to indicate whether the operation was successful. When true is returned, Object.defineProperty() succeeds as usual; when false is returned, Object.defineProperty() throws an error. You can use this functionality to restrict the kinds of properties that the Object.defineProperty() method can define. For instance, if you want to prevent symbol properties from being defined, you could check that the key is a string and return false if not, like this:

```js
let proxy = new Proxy({}, {
defineProperty(trapTarget, key, descriptor) {

if (typeof key === "symbol") {
return false;
}

return Reflect.defineProperty(trapTarget, key, descriptor);
}
});


Object.defineProperty(proxy, "name", {
value: "proxy"
});

console.log(proxy.name); // "proxy"

let nameSymbol = Symbol("name");

// throws error
Object.defineProperty(proxy, nameSymbol, {
value: "proxy"
});
```

The defineProperty proxy trap returns false when key is a symbol and otherwise proceeds with the default behavior. When Object.defineProperty() is called with "name" as the key, the method succeeds because the key is a string. When Object.defineProperty() is called with nameSymbol, it throws an error because the defineProperty trap returns false.




> You can also have Object.defineProperty() silently fail by returning true and not calling the Reflect.defineProperty() method. That will suppress the error while not actually defining the property.




#### Descriptor Object Restrictions


To ensure consistent behavior when using the Object.defineProperty() and Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor() methods, descriptor objects passed to the defineProperty trap are normalized. Objects returned from getOwnPropertyDescriptor trap are always validated for the same reason.

No matter what object is passed as the third argument to the Object.defineProperty() method, only the properties enumerable, configurable, value, writable, get, and set will be on the descriptor object passed to the defineProperty trap. For example:

```js
let proxy = new Proxy({}, {
defineProperty(trapTarget, key, descriptor) {
console.log(descriptor.value); // "proxy"
console.log(descriptor.name); // undefined

return Reflect.defineProperty(trapTarget, key, descriptor);
}
});


Object.defineProperty(proxy, "name", {
value: "proxy",
name: "custom"
});
```

Here, Object.defineProperty() is called with a nonstandard name property on the third argument. When the defineProperty trap is called, the descriptor object doesn’t have a name property but does have a value property. That’s because descriptor isn’t a reference to the actual third argument passed to the Object.defineProperty() method, but rather a new object that contains only the allowable properties. The Reflect.defineProperty() method also ignores any nonstandard properties on the descriptor.

The getOwnPropertyDescriptor trap has a slightly different restriction that requires the return value to be null, undefined, or an object. If an object is returned, only enumerable, configurable, value, writable, get, and set are allowed as own properties of the object. An error is thrown if you return an object with an own property that isn’t allowed, as this code shows:

```js
let proxy = new Proxy({}, {
getOwnPropertyDescriptor(trapTarget, key) {
return {
name: "proxy"
};
}
});

// throws error
let descriptor = Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor(proxy, "name");
```

The property name isn’t allowable on property descriptors, so when Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor() is called, the getOwnPropertyDescriptor return value triggers an error. This restriction ensures that the value returned by Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor() always has a reliable structure regardless of use on proxies.




#### Duplicate Descriptor Methods


Once again, ECMAScript 6 has some confusingly similar methods, as the Object.defineProperty() and Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor() methods appear to do the same thing as the Reflect.defineProperty() and Reflect.getOwnPropertyDescriptor() methods, respectively. Like other method pairs discussed earlier in this chapter, these have some subtle but important differences.




##### defineProperty() Methods


The Object.defineProperty() and Reflect.defineProperty() methods are exactly the same except for their return values. The Object.defineProperty() method returns the first argument, while Reflect.defineProperty() returns true if the operation succeeded and false if not. For example:

```js
let target = {};

let result1 = Object.defineProperty(target, "name", { value: "target "});

console.log(target === result1); // true

let result2 = Reflect.defineProperty(target, "name", { value: "reflect" });

console.log(result2); // true
```

When Object.defineProperty() is called on target, the return value is target. When Reflect.defineProperty() is called on target, the return value is true, indicating that the operation succeeded. Since the defineProperty proxy trap requires a boolean value to be returned, it’s better to use Reflect.defineProperty() to implement the default behavior when necessary.




##### getOwnPropertyDescriptor() Methods


The Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor() method coerces its first argument into an object when a primitive value is passed and then continues the operation. On the other hand, the Reflect.getOwnPropertyDescriptor() method throws an error if the first argument is a primitive value. Here’s an example showing both:

```js
let descriptor1 = Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor(2, "name");
console.log(descriptor1); // undefined

// throws an error
let descriptor2 = Reflect.getOwnPropertyDescriptor(2, "name");
```

The Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor() method returns undefined because it coerces 2 into an object, and that object has no name property. This is the standard behavior of the method when a property with the given name isn’t found on an object. When Reflect.getOwnPropertyDescriptor() is called, however, an error is thrown immediately because that method doesn’t accept primitive values for the first argument.




### The ownKeys Trap


The ownKeys proxy trap intercepts the internal method [[OwnPropertyKeys]] and allows you to override that behavior by returning an array of values. This array is used in four methods: the Object.keys() method, the Object.getOwnPropertyNames() method, the Object.getOwnPropertySymbols() method, and the Object.assign() method. (The Object.assign() method uses the array to determine which properties to copy.)

The default behavior for the ownKeys trap is implemented by the Reflect.ownKeys() method and returns an array of all own property keys, including both strings and symbols. The Object.getOwnProperyNames() method and the Object.keys() method filter symbols out of the array and returns the result while Object.getOwnPropertySymbols() filters the strings out of the array and returns the result. The Object.assign() method uses the array with both strings and symbols.

The ownKeys trap receives a single argument, the target, and must always return an array or array-like object; otherwise, an error is thrown. You can use the ownKeys trap to, for example, filter out certain property keys that you don’t want used when the Object.keys(), the Object.getOwnPropertyNames() method, the Object.getOwnPropertySymbols() method, or the Object.assign() method is used. Suppose you don’t want to include any property names that begin with an underscore character, a common notation in JavaScript indicating that a field is private. You can use the ownKeys trap to filter out those keys as follows:

```js
let proxy = new Proxy({}, {
ownKeys(trapTarget) {
return Reflect.ownKeys(trapTarget).filter(key => {
return typeof key !== "string" || key[0] !== "_";
});
}
});

let nameSymbol = Symbol("name");

proxy.name = "proxy";
proxy._name = "private";
proxy[nameSymbol] = "symbol";

let names = Object.getOwnPropertyNames(proxy),
keys = Object.keys(proxy);
symbols = Object.getOwnPropertySymbols(proxy);

console.log(names.length); // 1
console.log(names[0]); // "proxy"

console.log(keys.length); // 1
console.log(keys[0]); // "proxy"

console.log(symbols.length); // 1
console.log(symbols[0]); // "Symbol(name)"
```

This example uses an ownKeys trap that first calls Reflect.ownKeys() to get the default list of keys for the target. Then, the filter() method is used to filter out keys that are strings and begin with an underscore character. Then, three properties are added to the proxy object: name, _name, and nameSymbol. When Object.getOwnPropertyNames() and Object.keys() is called on proxy, only the name property is returned. Similarly, only nameSymbol is returned when Object.getOwnPropertySymbols() is called on proxy. The _name property doesn’t appear in either result because it is filtered out.

While the ownKeys proxy trap allows you to alter the keys returned from a small set of operations, it doesn’t affect more commonly used operations such as the for-of loop and the Object.keys() method. Those can’t be altered using proxies.




> The ownKeys trap also affects the for-in loop, which calls the trap to determine which keys to use inside of the loop.




### Function Proxies with the apply and construct Traps


Of all the proxy traps, only apply and construct require the proxy target to be a function. Recall from Chapter 3 that functions have two internal methods called [[Call]] and [[Construct]] that are executed when a function is called without and with the new operator, respectively. The apply and construct traps correspond to and let you override those internal methods. When a function is called without new, the apply trap receives, and Reflect.apply() expects, the following arguments:

1. trapTarget - the function being executed (the proxy’s target)
2. thisArg - the value of this inside of the function during the call
3. argumentsList - an array of arguments passed to the function

The construct trap, which is called when the function is executed using new, receives the following arguments:

1. trapTarget - the function being executed (the proxy’s target)
2. argumentsList - an array of arguments passed to the function

The Reflect.construct() method also accepts these two arguments and has an optional third argument called newTarget. When given, the newTarget argument specifies the value of new.target inside of the function.

Together, the apply and construct traps completely control the behavior of any proxy target function. To mimic the default behavior of a function, you can do this:

```js
let target = function() { return 42 },
proxy = new Proxy(target, {
apply: function(trapTarget, thisArg, argumentList) {
return Reflect.apply(trapTarget, thisArg, argumentList);
},
construct: function(trapTarget, argumentList) {
return Reflect.construct(trapTarget, argumentList);
}
});

// a proxy with a function as its target looks like a function
console.log(typeof proxy); // "function"

console.log(proxy()); // 42

var instance = new proxy();
console.log(instance instanceof proxy); // true
console.log(instance instanceof target); // true
```

This example has a function that returns the number 42. The proxy for that function uses the apply and construct traps to delegate those behaviors to the Reflect.apply() and Reflect.construct() methods, respectively. The end result is that the proxy function works exactly like the target function, including identifying itself as a function when typeof is used. The proxy is called without new to return 42 and then is called with new to create an object called instance. The instance object is considered an instance of both proxy and target because instanceof uses the prototype chain to determine this information. Prototype chain lookup is not affected by this proxy, which is why proxy and target appear to have the same prototype to the JavaScript engine.




#### Validating Function Parameters


The apply and construct traps open up a lot of possibilities for altering the way a function is executed. For instance, suppose you want to validate that all arguments are of a specific type. You can check the arguments in the apply trap:

```js
// adds together all arguments
function sum(...values) {
return values.reduce((previous, current) => previous + current, 0);
}

let sumProxy = new Proxy(sum, {
apply: function(trapTarget, thisArg, argumentList) {

argumentList.forEach((arg) => {
if (typeof arg !== "number") {
throw new TypeError("All arguments must be numbers.");
}
});

return Reflect.apply(trapTarget, thisArg, argumentList);
},
construct: function(trapTarget, argumentList) {
throw new TypeError("This function can't be called with new.");
}
});

console.log(sumProxy(1, 2, 3, 4)); // 10

// throws error
console.log(sumProxy(1, "2", 3, 4));

// also throws error
let result = new sumProxy();
```

This example uses the apply trap to ensure that all arguments are numbers. The sum() function adds up all of the arguments that are passed. If a non-number value is passed, the function will still attempt the operation, which can cause unexpected results. By wrapping sum() inside the sumProxy() proxy, this code intercepts function calls and ensures that each argument is a number before allowing the call to proceed. To be safe, the code also uses the construct trap to ensure that the function can’t be called with new.

You can also do the opposite, ensuring that a function must be called with new and validating its arguments to be numbers:

```js
function Numbers(...values) {
this.values = values;
}

let NumbersProxy = new Proxy(Numbers, {

apply: function(trapTarget, thisArg, argumentList) {
throw new TypeError("This function must be called with new.");
},

construct: function(trapTarget, argumentList) {
argumentList.forEach((arg) => {
if (typeof arg !== "number") {
throw new TypeError("All arguments must be numbers.");
}
});

return Reflect.construct(trapTarget, argumentList);
}
});

let instance = new NumbersProxy(1, 2, 3, 4);
console.log(instance.values); // [1,2,3,4]

// throws error
NumbersProxy(1, 2, 3, 4);
```

Here, the apply trap throws an error while the construct trap uses the Reflect.construct() method to validate input and return a new instance. Of course, you can accomplish the same thing without proxies using new.target instead.




#### Calling Constructors Without new


Chapter 3 introduced the new.target metaproperty. To review, new.target is a reference to the function on which new is called, meaning that you can tell if a function was called using new or not by checking the value of new.target like this:

```js
function Numbers(...values) {

if (typeof new.target === "undefined") {
throw new TypeError("This function must be called with new.");
}

this.values = values;
}

let instance = new Numbers(1, 2, 3, 4);
console.log(instance.values); // [1,2,3,4]

// throws error
Numbers(1, 2, 3, 4);
```

This example throws an error when Numbers is called without using new, which is similar to the example in the “Validating Function Parameters” section but doesn’t use a proxy. Writing code like this is much simpler than using a proxy and is preferable if your only goal is to prevent calling the function without new. But sometimes you aren’t in control of the function whose behavior needs to be modified. In that case, using a proxy makes sense.

Suppose the Numbers function is defined in code you can’t modify. You know that the code relies on new.target and want to avoid that check while still calling the function. The behavior when using new is already set, so you can just use the apply trap:

```js
function Numbers(...values) {

if (typeof new.target === "undefined") {
throw new TypeError("This function must be called with new.");
}

this.values = values;
}


let NumbersProxy = new Proxy(Numbers, {
apply: function(trapTarget, thisArg, argumentsList) {
return Reflect.construct(trapTarget, argumentsList);
}
});


let instance = NumbersProxy(1, 2, 3, 4);
console.log(instance.values); // [1,2,3,4]
```

The NumbersProxy function allows you to call Numbers without using new and have it behave as if new were used. To do so, the apply trap calls Reflect.construct() with the arguments passed into apply. The new.target inside of Numbers is equal to Numbers itself, and no error is thrown. While this is a simple example of modifying new.target, you can also do so more directly.




#### Overriding Abstract Base Class Constructors


You can go one step further and specify the third argument to Reflect.construct() as the specific value to assign to new.target. This is useful when a function is checking new.target against a known value, such as when creating an abstract base class constructor (discussed in Chapter 9). In an abstract base class constructor, new.target is expected to be something other than the class constructor itself, as in this example:

```js
class AbstractNumbers {

constructor(...values) {
if (new.target === AbstractNumbers) {
throw new TypeError("This function must be inherited from.");
}

this.values = values;
}
}

class Numbers extends AbstractNumbers {}

let instance = new Numbers(1, 2, 3, 4);
console.log(instance.values); // [1,2,3,4]

// throws error
new AbstractNumbers(1, 2, 3, 4);
```

When new AbstractNumbers() is called, new.target is equal to AbstractNumbers and an error is thrown. Calling new Numbers() still works because new.target is equal to Numbers. You can bypass this restriction by manually assigning new.target with a proxy:

```js
class AbstractNumbers {

constructor(...values) {
if (new.target === AbstractNumbers) {
throw new TypeError("This function must be inherited from.");
}

this.values = values;
}
}

let AbstractNumbersProxy = new Proxy(AbstractNumbers, {
construct: function(trapTarget, argumentList) {
return Reflect.construct(trapTarget, argumentList, function() {});
}
});


let instance = new AbstractNumbersProxy(1, 2, 3, 4);
console.log(instance.values); // [1,2,3,4]
```

The AbstractNumbersProxy uses the construct trap to intercept the call to the new AbstractNumbersProxy() method. Then, the Reflect.construct() method is called with arguments from the trap and adds an empty function as the third argument. That empty function is used as the value of new.target inside of the constructor. Because new.target is not equal to AbstractNumbers, no error is thrown and the constructor executes completely.




#### Callable Class Constructors


Chapter 9 explained that class constructors must always be called with new. That happens because the internal [[Call]] method for class constructors is specified to throw an error. But proxies can intercept calls to the [[Call]] method, meaning you can effectively create callable class constructors by using a proxy. For instance, if you want a class constructor to work without using new, you can use the apply trap to create a new instance. Here’s some sample code:

```js
class Person {
constructor(name) {
this.name = name;
}
}

let PersonProxy = new Proxy(Person, {
apply: function(trapTarget, thisArg, argumentList) {
return new trapTarget(...argumentList);
}
});


let me = PersonProxy("Nicholas");
console.log(me.name); // "Nicholas"
console.log(me instanceof Person); // true
console.log(me instanceof PersonProxy); // true
```

The PersonProxy object is a proxy of the Person class constructor. Class constructors are just functions, so they behave like functions when used in proxies. The apply trap overrides the default behavior and instead returns a new instance of trapTarget that’s equal to Person. (I used trapTarget in this example to show that you don’t need to manually specify the class.) The argumentList is passed to trapTarget using the spread operator to pass each argument separately. Calling PersonProxy() without using new returns an instance of Person; if you attempt to call Person() without new, the constructor will still throw an error. Creating callable class constructors is something that is only possible using proxies.




### Revocable Proxies


Normally, a proxy can’t be unbound from its target once the proxy has been created. All of the examples to this point in this chapter have used nonrevocable proxies. But there may be situations when you want to revoke a proxy so that it can no longer be used. You’ll find it most helpful to revoke proxies when you want to provide an object through an API for security purposes and maintain the ability to cut off access to some functionality at any point in time.

You can create revocable proxies with the Proxy.revocable() method, which takes the same arguments as the Proxy constructor–a target object and the proxy handler. The return value is an object with the following properties:

1. proxy - the proxy object that can be revoked
2. revoke - the function to call to revoke the proxy

When the revoke() function is called, no further operations can be performed through the proxy. Any attempt to interact with the proxy object in a way that would trigger a proxy trap throws an error. For example:

```js
let target = {
name: "target"
};

let { proxy, revoke } = Proxy.revocable(target, {});

console.log(proxy.name); // "target"

revoke();

// throws error
console.log(proxy.name);
```

This example creates a revocable proxy. It uses destructuring to assign the proxy and revoke variables to the properties of the same name on the object returned by the Proxy.revocable() method. After that, the proxy object can be used just like a nonrevocable proxy object, so proxy.name returns "target" because it passes through to target.name. Once the revoke() function is called, however, proxy no longer functions. Attempting to access proxy.name throws an error, as will any other operation that would trigger a trap on proxy.




### Solving the Array Problem


At the beginning of this chapter, I explained how developers couldn’t mimic the behavior of an array accurately in JavaScript prior to ECMAScript 6. Proxies and the reflection API allow you to create an object that behaves in the same manner as the built-in Array type when properties are added and removed. To refresh your memory, here’s an example showing the behavior that proxies help to mimick:

```js
let colors = ["red", "green", "blue"];

console.log(colors.length); // 3

colors[3] = "black";

console.log(colors.length); // 4
console.log(colors[3]); // "black"

colors.length = 2;

console.log(colors.length); // 2
console.log(colors[3]); // undefined
console.log(colors[2]); // undefined
console.log(colors[1]); // "green"
```

There are two particularly important behaviors to notice in this example:

1. The length property is increased to 4 when colors[3] is assigned a value.
2. The last two items in the array are deleted when the length property is set to 2.

These two behaviors are the only ones that need to be mimicked to accurately recreate how built-in arrays work. The next few sections describe how to make an object that correctly mimics them.




#### Detecting Array Indices


Keep in mind that assigning to an integer property key is a special case for arrays, as those are treated differently from non-integer keys. The ECMAScript 6 specification gives these instructions on how to determine if a property key is an array index:


##### A String property name P is an array index if and only if ToString(ToUint32(P)) is equal to P and ToUint32(P) is not equal to 232-1.

This operation can be implemented in JavaScript as follows:

```js
function toUint32(value) {
return Math.floor(Math.abs(Number(value))) % Math.pow(2, 32);
}

function isArrayIndex(key) {
let numericKey = toUint32(key);
return String(numericKey) == key && numericKey < (Math.pow(2, 32) - 1);
}
```

The toUint32() function converts a given value into an unsigned 32-bit integer using an algorithm described in the specification. The isArrayIndex() function first converts the key into a uint32 and then performs the comparisons to determine if the key is an array index or not. With these utility functions available, you can start to implement an object that will mimic a built-in array.




#### Increasing length when Adding New Elements


You might have noticed that both array behaviors I described rely on the assignment of a property. That means you really only need to use the set proxy trap to accomplish both behaviors. To get started, here’s an example that implements the first of the two behaviors by incrementing the length property when an array index larger than length - 1 is used:

```js
function toUint32(value) {
return Math.floor(Math.abs(Number(value))) % Math.pow(2, 32);
}

function isArrayIndex(key) {
let numericKey = toUint32(key);
return String(numericKey) == key && numericKey < (Math.pow(2, 32) - 1);
}

function createMyArray(length=0) {
return new Proxy({ length }, {
set(trapTarget, key, value) {

let currentLength = Reflect.get(trapTarget, "length");

// the special case
if (isArrayIndex(key)) {
let numericKey = Number(key);

if (numericKey >= currentLength) {
Reflect.set(trapTarget, "length", numericKey + 1);
}
}

// always do this regardless of key type
return Reflect.set(trapTarget, key, value);
}
});
}

let colors = createMyArray(3);
console.log(colors.length); // 3

colors[0] = "red";
colors[1] = "green";
colors[2] = "blue";

console.log(colors.length); // 3

colors[3] = "black";

console.log(colors.length); // 4
console.log(colors[3]); // "black"
```

This example uses the set proxy trap to intercept the setting of an array index. If the key is an array index, then it is converted into a number because keys are always passed as strings. Next, if that numeric value is greater than or equal to the current length property, then the length property is updated to be one more than the numeric key (setting an item in position 3 means the length must be 4). After that, the default behavior for setting a property is used via Reflect.set(), since you do want the property to receive the value as specified.

The initial custom array is created by calling createMyArray() with a length of 3 and the values for those three items are added immediately afterward. The length property correctly remains 3 until the value "black" is assigned to position 3. At that point, length is set to 4.

With the first behavior working, it’s time to move on to the second.




#### Deleting Elements on Reducing length


The first array behavior to mimic is used only when an array index is greater than or equal to the length property. The second behavior does the opposite and removes array items when the length property is set to a smaller value than it previously contained. That involves not only changing the length property, but also deleting all items that might otherwise exist. For instance, if an array with a length of 4 has length set to 2, the items in positions 2 and 3 are deleted. You can accomplish this inside the set proxy trap alongside the first behavior. Here’s the previous example again, with an updated createMyArray method:

```js
function toUint32(value) {
return Math.floor(Math.abs(Number(value))) % Math.pow(2, 32);
}

function isArrayIndex(key) {
let numericKey = toUint32(key);
return String(numericKey) == key && numericKey < (Math.pow(2, 32) - 1);
}

function createMyArray(length=0) {
return new Proxy({ length }, {
set(trapTarget, key, value) {

let currentLength = Reflect.get(trapTarget, "length");

// the special case
if (isArrayIndex(key)) {
let numericKey = Number(key);

if (numericKey >= currentLength) {
Reflect.set(trapTarget, "length", numericKey + 1);
}
} else if (key === "length") {

if (value < currentLength) {
for (let index = currentLength - 1; index >= value; index\
--) {
Reflect.deleteProperty(trapTarget, index);
}
}

}

// always do this regardless of key type
return Reflect.set(trapTarget, key, value);
}
});
}

let colors = createMyArray(3);
console.log(colors.length); // 3

colors[0] = "red";
colors[1] = "green";
colors[2] = "blue";
colors[3] = "black";

console.log(colors.length); // 4

colors.length = 2;

console.log(colors.length); // 2
console.log(colors[3]); // undefined
console.log(colors[2]); // undefined
console.log(colors[1]); // "green"
console.log(colors[0]); // "red"
```

The set proxy trap in this code checks to see if key is "length" in order to adjust the rest of the object correctly. When that happens, the current length is first retrieved using Reflect.get() and compared against the new value. If the new value is less than the current length, then a for loop deletes all properties on the target that should no longer be available. The for loop goes backward from the current array length (currentLength) and deletes each property until it reaches the new array length (value).

This example adds four colors to colors and then sets the length property to 2. That effectively removes the items in positions 2 and 3, so they now return undefined when you attempt to access them. The length property is correctly set to 2 and the items in positions 0 and 1 are still accessible.

With both behaviors implemented, you can easily create an object that mimics the behavior of built-in arrays. But doing so with a function isn’t as desirable as creating a class to encapsulate this behavior, so the next step is to implement this functionality as a class.




#### Implementing the MyArray Class


The simplest way to create a class that uses a proxy is to define the class as usual and then return a proxy from the constructor. That way, the object returned when a class is instantiated will be the proxy instead of the instance. (The instance is the value of this inside the constructor.) The instance becomes the target of the proxy and the proxy is returned as if it were the instance. The instance will be completely private and you won’t be able to access it directly, though you’ll be able to access it indirectly through the proxy.

Here’s a simple example of returning a proxy from a class constructor:

```js
class Thing {
constructor() {
return new Proxy(this, {});
}
}

let myThing = new Thing();
console.log(myThing instanceof Thing); // true
```

In this example, the class Thing returns a proxy from its constructor. The proxy target is this and the proxy is returned from the constructor. That means myThing is actually a proxy even though it was created by calling the Thing constructor. Because proxies pass through their behavior to their targets, myThing is still considered an instance of Thing, making the proxy completely transparent to anyone using the Thing class.

With that in mind, creating a custom array class using a proxy in relatively straightforward. The code is mostly the same as the code in the “Deleting Elements on Reducing Length” section. The same proxy code is used, but this time, it’s inside a class constructor. Here’s the complete example:

```js
function toUint32(value) {
return Math.floor(Math.abs(Number(value))) % Math.pow(2, 32);
}

function isArrayIndex(key) {
let numericKey = toUint32(key);
return String(numericKey) == key && numericKey < (Math.pow(2, 32) - 1);
}

class MyArray {
constructor(length=0) {
this.length = length;

return new Proxy(this, {
set(trapTarget, key, value) {

let currentLength = Reflect.get(trapTarget, "length");

// the special case
if (isArrayIndex(key)) {
let numericKey = Number(key);

if (numericKey >= currentLength) {
Reflect.set(trapTarget, "length", numericKey + 1);
}
} else if (key === "length") {

if (value < currentLength) {
for (let index = currentLength - 1; index >= value; i\
ndex--) {
Reflect.deleteProperty(trapTarget, index);
}
}

}

// always do this regardless of key type
return Reflect.set(trapTarget, key, value);
}
});

}
}


let colors = new MyArray(3);
console.log(colors instanceof MyArray); // true

console.log(colors.length); // 3

colors[0] = "red";
colors[1] = "green";
colors[2] = "blue";
colors[3] = "black";

console.log(colors.length); // 4

colors.length = 2;

console.log(colors.length); // 2
console.log(colors[3]); // undefined
console.log(colors[2]); // undefined
console.log(colors[1]); // "green"
console.log(colors[0]); // "red"
```

This code creates a MyArray class that returns a proxy from its constructor. The length property is added in the constructor (initialized to either the value that is passed in or to a default value of 0) and then a proxy is created and returned. This gives the colors variable the appearance of being just an instance of MyArray and implements both of the key array behaviors.

Although returning a proxy from a class constructor is easy, it does mean that a new proxy is created for every instance. There is, however, a way to have all instances share one proxy: you can use the proxy as a prototype.




### Using a Proxy as a Prototype


Proxies can be used as prototypes, but doing so is a bit more involved than the previous examples in this chapter. When a proxy is a prototype, the proxy traps are only called when the default operation would normally continue on to the prototype, which does limit a proxy’s capabilities as a prototype. Consider this example:

```js
let target = {};
let newTarget = Object.create(new Proxy(target, {

// never called
defineProperty(trapTarget, name, descriptor) {

// would cause an error if called
return false;
}
}));

Object.defineProperty(newTarget, "name", {
value: "newTarget"
});

console.log(newTarget.name); // "newTarget"
console.log(newTarget.hasOwnProperty("name")); // true
```

The newTarget object is created with a proxy as the prototype. Making target the proxy target effectively makes target the prototype of newTarget because the proxy is transparent. Now, proxy traps will only be called if an operation on newTarget would pass the operation through to happen on target.

The Object.defineProperty() method is called on newTarget to create an own property called name. Defining a property on an object isn’t an operation that normally continues to the object’s prototype, so the defineProperty trap on the proxy is never called and the name property is added to newTarget as an own property.

While proxies are severely limited when used as prototypes, there are a few traps that are still useful.




#### Using the get Trap on a Prototype


When the internal [[Get]] method is called to read a property, the operation looks for own properties first. If an own property with the given name isn’t found, then the operation continues to the prototype and looks for a property there. The process continues until there are no further prototypes to check.

Thanks to that process, if you set up a get proxy trap, the trap will be called on a prototype whenever an own property of the given name doesn’t exist. You can use the get trap to prevent unexpected behavior when accessing properties that you can’t guarantee will exist. Just create an object that throws an error whenever you try to access a property that doesn’t exist:

```js
let target = {};
let thing = Object.create(new Proxy(target, {
get(trapTarget, key, receiver) {
throw new ReferenceError(`${key} doesn't exist`);
}
}));

thing.name = "thing";

console.log(thing.name); // "thing"

// throw an error
let unknown = thing.unknown;
```

In this code, the thing object is created with a proxy as its prototype. The get trap throws an error when called to indicate that the given key doesn’t exist on the thing object. When thing.name is read, the operation never calls the get trap on the prototype because the property exists on thing. The get trap is called only when the thing.unknown property, which doesn’t exist, is accessed.

When the last line executes, unknown isn’t an own property of thing, so the operation continues to the prototype. The get trap then throws an error. This type of behavior can be very useful in JavaScript, where unknown properties silently return undefined instead of throwing an error (as happens in other languages).

It’s important to understand that in this example, trapTarget and receiver are different objects. When a proxy is used as a prototype, the trapTarget is the prototype object itself while the receiver is the instance object. In this case, that means trapTarget is equal to target and receiver is equal to thing. That allows you access both to the original target of the proxy and the object on which the operation is meant to take place.




#### Using the set Trap on a Prototype


The internal [[Set]] method also checks for own properties and then continues to the prototype if needed. When you assign a value to an object property, the value is assigned to the own property with the same name if it exists. If no own property with the given name exists, then the operation continues to the prototype. The tricky part is that even though the assignment operation continues to the prototype, assigning a value to that property will create a property on the instance (not the prototype) by default, regardless of whether a property of that name exists on the prototype.

To get a better idea of when the set trap will be called on a prototype and when it won’t, consider the following example showing the default behavior:

```js
let target = {};
let thing = Object.create(new Proxy(target, {
set(trapTarget, key, value, receiver) {
return Reflect.set(trapTarget, key, value, receiver);
}
}));

console.log(thing.hasOwnProperty("name")); // false

// triggers the `set` proxy trap
thing.name = "thing";

console.log(thing.name); // "thing"
console.log(thing.hasOwnProperty("name")); // true

// does not trigger the `set` proxy trap
thing.name = "boo";

console.log(thing.name); // "boo"
```

In this example, target starts with no own properties. The thing object has a proxy as its prototype that defines a set trap to catch the creation of any new properties. When thing.name is assigned "thing" as its value, the set proxy trap is called because thing doesn’t have an own property called name. Inside the set trap, trapTarget is equal to target and receiver is equal to thing. The operation should ultimately create a new property on thing, and fortunately Reflect.set() implements this default behavior for you if you pass in receiver as the fourth argument.

Once the name property is created on thing, setting thing.name to a different value will no longer call the set proxy trap. At that point, name is an own property so the [[Set]] operation never continues on to the prototype.




#### Using the has Trap on a Prototype


Recall that the has trap intercepts the use of the in operator on objects. The in operator searches first for an object’s own property with the given name. If an own property with that name doesn’t exist, the operation continues to the prototype. If there’s no own property on the prototype, then the search continues through the prototype chain until the own property is found or there are no more prototypes to search.

The has trap is therefore only called when the search reaches the proxy object in the prototype chain. When using a proxy as a prototype, that only happens when there’s no own property of the given name. For example:

```js
let target = {};
let thing = Object.create(new Proxy(target, {
has(trapTarget, key) {
return Reflect.has(trapTarget, key);
}
}));

// triggers the `has` proxy trap
console.log("name" in thing); // false

thing.name = "thing";

// does not trigger the `has` proxy trap
console.log("name" in thing); // true
```

This code creates a has proxy trap on the prototype of thing. The has trap isn’t passed a receiver object like the get and set traps are because searching the prototype happens automatically when the in operator is used. Instead, the has trap must operate only on trapTarget, which is equal to target. The first time the in operator is used in this example, the has trap is called because the property name doesn’t exist as an own property of thing. When thing.name is given a value and then the in operator is used again, the has trap isn’t called because the operation stops after finding the own property name on thing.

The prototype examples to this point have centered around objects created using the Object.create() method. But if you want to create a class that has a proxy as a prototype, the process is a bit more involved.




#### Proxies as Prototypes on Classes

Classes cannot be directly modified to use a proxy as a prototype because their prototype property is non-writable. You can, however, use a bit of misdirection to create a class that has a proxy as its prototype by using inheritance. To start, you need to create an ECMAScript 5-style type definition using a constructor function. You can then overwrite the prototype to be a proxy. Here’s an example:

```js
function NoSuchProperty() {
// empty
}

NoSuchProperty.prototype = new Proxy({}, {
get(trapTarget, key, receiver) {
throw new ReferenceError(`${key} doesn't exist`);
}
});

let thing = new NoSuchProperty();

// throws error due to `get` proxy trap
let result = thing.name;
```

The NoSuchProperty function represents the base from which the class will inherit. There are no restrictions on the prototype property of functions, so you can overwrite it with a proxy. The get trap is used to throw an error when the property doesn’t exist. The thing object is created as an instance of NoSuchProperty and throws an error when the nonexistent name property is accessed.

The next step is to create a class that inherits from NoSuchProperty. You can simply use the extends syntax discussed in Chapter 9 to introduce the proxy into the class’ prototype chain, like this:

```js
function NoSuchProperty() {
// empty
}

NoSuchProperty.prototype = new Proxy({}, {
get(trapTarget, key, receiver) {
throw new ReferenceError(`${key} doesn't exist`);
}
});

class Square extends NoSuchProperty {
constructor(length, width) {
super();
this.length = length;
this.width = width;
}
}

let shape = new Square(2, 6);

let area1 = shape.length * shape.width;
console.log(area1); // 12

// throws an error because "wdth" doesn't exist
let area2 = shape.length * shape.wdth;
```

The Square class inherits from NoSuchProperty so the proxy is in the Square class’ prototype chain. The shape object is then created as a new instance of Square and has two own properties: length and width. Reading the values of those properties succeeds because the get proxy trap is never called. Only when a property that doesn’t exist on shape is accessed (shape.wdth, an obvious typo) does the get proxy trap trigger and throw an error.

That proves the proxy is in the prototype chain of shape, but it might not be obvious that the proxy is not the direct prototype of shape. In fact, the proxy is a couple of steps up the prototype chain from shape. You can see this more clearly by slightly altering the preceding example:

```js
function NoSuchProperty() {
// empty
}

// store a reference to the proxy that will be the prototype
let proxy = new Proxy({}, {
get(trapTarget, key, receiver) {
throw new ReferenceError(`${key} doesn't exist`);
}
});

NoSuchProperty.prototype = proxy;

class Square extends NoSuchProperty {
constructor(length, width) {
super();
this.length = length;
this.width = width;
}
}

let shape = new Square(2, 6);

let shapeProto = Object.getPrototypeOf(shape);

console.log(shapeProto === proxy); // false

let secondLevelProto = Object.getPrototypeOf(shapeProto);

console.log(secondLevelProto === proxy); // true
```

This version of the code stores the proxy in a variable called proxy so it’s easy to identify later. The prototype of shape is Shape.prototype, which is not a proxy. But the prototype of Shape.prototype is the proxy that was inherited from NoSuchProperty.

The inheritance adds another step in the prototype chain, and that matters because operations that might result in calling the get trap on proxy need to go through one extra step before getting there. If there’s a property on Shape.prototype, then that will prevent the get proxy trap from being called, as in this example:

```js
function NoSuchProperty() {
// empty
}

NoSuchProperty.prototype = new Proxy({}, {
get(trapTarget, key, receiver) {
throw new ReferenceError(`${key} doesn't exist`);
}
});

class Square extends NoSuchProperty {
constructor(length, width) {
super();
this.length = length;
this.width = width;
}

getArea() {
return this.length * this.width;
}
}

let shape = new Square(2, 6);

let area1 = shape.length * shape.width;
console.log(area1); // 12

let area2 = shape.getArea();
console.log(area2); // 12

// throws an error because "wdth" doesn't exist
let area3 = shape.length * shape.wdth;
```

Here, the Square class has a getArea() method. The getArea() method is automatically added to Square.prototype so when shape.getArea() is called, the search for the method getArea() starts on the shape instance and then proceeds to its prototype. Because getArea() is found on the prototype, the search stops and the proxy is never called. That is actually the behavior you want in this situation, as you wouldn’t want to incorrectly throw an error when getArea() was called.

Even though it takes a little bit of extra code to create a class with a proxy in its prototype chain, it can be worth the effort if you need such functionality.




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