## Substring with Concatenation of All Words

### 描述

You are given a string, `S`, and a list of words, `L`, that are all of the same length. Find all starting indices of substring(s) in `S` that is a concatenation of each word in `L` exactly once and without any intervening characters.

For example, given:

```
S: "barfoothefoobarman"
L: ["foo", "bar"]
```

You should return the indices: `[0,9]`.(order does not matter).

### 分析

### 代码

{% if book.java %}
```java
// Substring with Concatenation of All Words
// 时间复杂度O(n*m)，空间复杂度O(m)
public class Solution {
public List findSubstring(String s, String[] words) {
final int wordLength = words[0].length();
final int catLength = wordLength * words.length;
List result = new ArrayList<>();

if (s.length() < catLength) return result;

HashMap wordCount = new HashMap<>();

for (String word : words)
wordCount.put(word, wordCount.getOrDefault(word, 0) + 1);

for (int i = 0; i <= s.length() - catLength; ++i) {
HashMap unused = new HashMap<>(wordCount);

for (int j = i; j < i + catLength; j += wordLength) {
final String key = s.substring(j, j + wordLength);
final int pos = unused.getOrDefault(key, -1);

if (pos == -1 || pos == 0) break;

unused.put(key, pos - 1);
if (pos - 1 == 0) unused.remove(key);
}

}

return result;
}
}
```
{% endif %}

{% if book.cpp %}
```cpp
// LeetCode, Substring with Concatenation of All Words
// 时间复杂度O(n*m)，空间复杂度O(m)
class Solution {
public:
vector findSubstring(string s, vector& dict) {
size_t wordLength = dict.front().length();
size_t catLength = wordLength * dict.size();
vector result;

if (s.length() < catLength) return result;

unordered_map wordCount;

for (auto const& word : dict) ++wordCount[word];

for (auto i = begin(s); i <= prev(end(s), catLength); ++i) {
unordered_map unused(wordCount);

for (auto j = i; j != next(i, catLength); j += wordLength) {
auto pos = unused.find(string(j, next(j, wordLength)));

if (pos == unused.end() || pos->second == 0) break;

if (--pos->second == 0) unused.erase(pos);
}

if (unused.size() == 0) result.push_back(distance(begin(s), i));
}

return result;
}
};
```
{% endif %}